Soil Science
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Soil Science

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Profiling of the Volatile Compounds of the Different Local Coffee Cultivars through Headspace – Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry [RESEARCH NOTE]
Kevinilo P. Marquez and Ruel M. Mojica The study sought to provide the data necessary for the identification, authentication, and quality analysis of coffee products cultivated locally. Four varieties of locally cultivated coffee beans (Arabica, Robusta, Excelsa, and Liberica) were analyzed for their respective aroma profiles using Headspace – Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry. For the aroma profiles, a total of 66 compounds were detected across varieties and roasting degrees based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Library Search Engine. An 85% mass spectral profile match percentage served as the main criteria. The aroma profiles were analyzed to differentiate the varieties and their respective roasting degrees quantitatively through the varying amounts of the volatile compounds emitted as aroma, and to determine the effects of roasting on the resulting composition of such components.
SSR Analysis of Coffea liberica var. liberica and Coffea liberica var. dewevrei in the Philippines [RESEARCH NOTE]
Daisy May C. Santos and Ernelea P. Cao In the Philippines, four coffee varieties (Arabica, Robusta, Liberica and Excelsa) are cultivated for commercial consumption. While Arabica and Robusta varieties are well-known globally, Liberica or Kapeng Barako is being developed as Philippine specialty coffee. Liberica and Excelsa are more similar in morphology compared to Arabica and Robusta since they are varieties of the same species, Coffea liberica W. Bull ex Hiern. In this study, 20 SSR markers were amplified for C. liberica specimens representing both Liberica and Excelsa varieties in the Philippines. While the SSR markers exhibited high polymorphism, between-site variation was much greater compared to between-variety. The neighbor-joining tree showed specimens from the same site clustering together with moderate to high bootstrap supports. These SSR markers may be used for geographic origin determination of coffee varieties.
Cytogenetic Analysis of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and Some of Its Wild Relatives Found in the Philippines [RESEARCH NOTE]
Khris June L. Callano Cytogenetics is known to offer relevant information useful in understanding phylogenetic relationships, genetic mapping and plant breeding studies. In particular, the knowledge of meiotic chromosomal behavior is highly vital in working out pathways for transferring desirable traits from related species to cultivated ones. Cytogenetic characterization of Solanum aethiopicum, S. americanum, S. hirtellum, S. mammosum, S. melongena, S. pseudocapsicum and S. torvum was done using iron-acetocarmine squash technique. S. aethiopicum, S. americanum, S. hirtellum, S. melongena, S. pseudocapsicum and S. torvum were found to be diploid species with chromosome number 2n=24 while S. mammosum had a chromosome number of 2n=22. Lagging chromosomes, bridge formation and asynchronous cell division were observed in insignificant frequencies (1.96–22.06%; 12.07–20.69%; and 1.59–18.18%, respectively). Literature on the basic and applied chromosome features of Solanum species is quit...
Simulated Transport of Silver Therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus) Fingerlings at Different Durations and Loading Densities: Effects on Survival and Water Quality
Frolan A. Aya, Reylan C. Gutierrez, and Luis Maria B. Garcia Received: May 31, 2023/ Revised: February 27, 2024/ Accepted: March 13, 2024 The silver therapon, Leiopotherapon plumbeus, is being promoted as a new species for aquaculture. However, information on the optimal conditions for the transport of this species for grow-out culture needs to be established to avoid stress and unnecessary mortalities. This study examined the effects of duration of transport and loading density on survival and water quality during simulated transport of silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus). Hatchery-produced fingerlings [1.30±0.34 g body weight (BW); 44.30 ± 3.77 mm total length (TL)] were held in double-layered oxygenated plastic bags at three transport durations (6 h, 9 h, and 12 h) and densities (40 fish bag-1, 80 fish bag-1, and 120 fish bag-1) in triplicates. Mean survival rates were not significantly affected by both duration of transport (P=0.321) and loading density (P=0.345). However,...
Microbiological and Physicochemical Changes in Rabbit Meat During Ambient Storage
Marielle D. Gamboa, Dennis Marvin O. Santiago, April Shayne L. Sulabo, and Mary Ann O. Torio Received: October 5, 2023/ Revised: April 12, 2024/ Accepted: April 17, 2024 This study aimed to evaluate the changes in rabbit meat during storage at ambient temperature (30 ± 1 ºC) for nine hours. The study focused on two rabbit muscle parts: the hind leg and the saddle, investigated in terms of microbiological parameters such as aerobic plate count (APC) and total coliform count (TCC); and physicochemical parameters such as pH, color, total myoglobin concentration, and lipid oxidation. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis at a 5% significance level (p < 0.05). Results revealed that the pH of both portions of rabbit muscle decreases over time during storage. This decrease is attributed to the growth of acid-producing microorganisms, which ultimately leads to spoilage in rabbit meat. On the contrary, color values (L*, a*, and b*) showed an increasing trend in both muscle ...
Baseline Characterization of Semen from Philippine Native Chickens: Banaba, Joloano, and Paraoakan
Darcy R. Pamulaklakin, Carla Alilie L. Junsay, Consuelo Amor S. Estrella, and Percival P. Sangel Received: November 20, 2023/ Revised: April 3, 2024/ Accepted: April 18, 2024 The study aimed to characterize and establish baseline data on the quantity and quality of fresh avian semen utilizing a sample of Philippine native roosters. Twenty-two heads each were acquired from breeds Banaba, Joloano, and Paraoakan. The baseline data analysis revealed significant variations in semen volume among different genetic groups, with Banaba displaying the highest volume, followed by Joloano and Paraoakan. Banaba also exhibited the highest semen pH value of 7.27 when compared to the other two genetic groups (P<0.05). Across various genetic groups of native chickens, the majority of semen samples demonstrated a thick and creamy consistency and color (42.6%), followed by thin and creamy (32.9%), with a statistical significance of P<0.05. Furthermore, variations in sperm concentration were obse...
Development of Active Packaging Films Using Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) Pods and Calamondin (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) Peels
Julienne Stephanie Fabie-Agapin and Dennis Rojas Marcelino Received: May 15, 2023/ Revised: February 26, 2024/ Accepted: March 13, 2024 This paper presents the properties of active films produced using cacao pods and calamondin peels. An active film is a type of packaging material that is made by incorporating the “active” ingredients for preservation on the packaging film rather than a direct application to foods. In this study, the conversion to active films was done by adding essential oils from lemongrass or calamondin peels, which are both known to exhibit antimicrobial properties. There were five film samples prepared for analysis: cacao-calamondin mixture; cacao-calamondin mixture with lemongrass essential oil; cacao-calamondin mixture with calamondin essential oil; cacao-calamondin mixture with encapsulated lemongrass essential oil; cacao-calamondin mixture with encapsulated calamondin essential oil; and two more samples for other analyses needing films from pure cacao and c...
Genetic Diversity Analysis of Greater Yam (Dioscorea alata L.) Collections Using Tuber Morphology and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) Markers
Junelyn B. Ravelo, Lara Jaaziel Batalon, and Antonio G. Lalusin Received: March 27, 2023/ Revised: April 8, 2024/ Accepted: April 12, 2024 The diversity of 148 greater yam (Dioscorea alata L.) accessions from the collections of the National Plant Genetics Resources Laboratory (NPGRL), Visayas State University (VSU), and the Institute of Crop Science – University of the Philippines Los Baños (ICROPS-UPLB) was evaluated using 54 Dioscorea-based SSR markers. Polymorphic bands were amplified in 50 out of 54 SSR markers with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values ranging from 0.65 to 0.89. Subsequent cluster analysis generated nine distinct clusters with a Jaccard’s distance index of 0.85, implying 85% dissimilarity among the greater yam accessions. Each formed cluster from the analysis comprised a varying number of accessions: Cluster I with three, Cluster II with 24, Cluster III with 15, Cluster IV with 31, Cluster V with two, Cluster VI with four, Cluster VII with 11, Clus...
Short-term Response of Soil Microbial Community and Soil Bio-chemical Properties to Soybean Intercropping in a Cassava-based Cropping System
Nolissa D. Organo, John Lester V. Pide, Michelle Anne M. Calubaquib, Elmer E. Enicola, Evelyn F. Delfin, Vanessa F. Calderon, Raymund M. Antiola, Hosne A. Dilzahan, and Andre F. Cruz Received: February 16, 2022/ Revised: November 17, 2023/ Accepted: February 6, 2024 A cassava-based cropping system study assessed the short-term response of soil chemical and biochemical properties and soil microbial communities to soybean intercropping. Two soybean varieties (‘Select Manchuria’ and ‘Tiwala 12’) were tested as intercrops. The treatments did not affect the soil’s chemical (pH, OM, N, P, K) and biochemical (basal respiration and dehydrogenase and urease enzyme activities) properties after one cropping period. Amplicon sequencing analysis found that intercropping promoted the abundance of bacterial orders Actinomycetales, Solibacterales, Sphingomonadales, and Rhodospirillales. These groups play active roles in organic matter decomposition and can potentially improve the soil quality in an...
Growth and Yield of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Crispa) in Varying Irrigation Water Salinity and Leaching Fractions
Berkant ÖDEMIS, Derya KAZGÖZ CANDEMIR, and Koray ÇAPAR Received: August 24, 2023/ Revised: March 20, 2024/ Accepted: March 25, 2024 This study aimed to determine the response of yield and yield parameters of the ‘Cospirina’ lettuce plant, known to be moderate salinity tolerant, to different levels of saltwater applications and different leaching rates in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Hatay Province, Türkiye. Lettuce was irrigated at three different irrigation water salinity levels (EC0=0.5 dS m-1-control, EC2=2 dS m-1, EC4=4 dS m-1) and four different leaching fractions (LF0=0%, LF1=10%, LF2=20%, LF3=30%). Irrigation water salinity was adjusted by adding different amounts of NaCl salt to tap water (EC0, control) with an EC value of 0.5 dS m-1. Plant water consumption (PWC) increased as the leaching fraction increased but decreased as salinity increased. PWC ranged between 7.32–10.5 L for EC0, 7.0–8.46 L for EC2, and 5.0–6.46 L for EC4. The mean water use efficiency (WUEy) was ...